Research Support

We draw on the best research for this site.

Amato, P. R. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1279–1287.

Amato, P. R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. Future of Children, 15(2), 75–96.

Amato, P.R., & Anthony, C. J. (2014). Estimating the effects of divorce and death with fixed effects models. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 370-386.

Amato, P. R., & Booth, A. (1997). A generation at risk. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Amato, P. R., & DeBoer, D. D. (2001). The transmission of marital instability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1038–105.

Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46.

Amato, P. R. (2002). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1269-1287.

Amato, P. R., & Hohmann-Marriott, B. (2007). A comparison of high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 621-638.

Amato, P. R. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1269–1287.

Amato, P. R., & Booth, A. (1997). A generation at risk. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Amato, P. R., & Hohmann-Marriott, B. (2007). A comparison of high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 621–638.

Anderson, K. L. (2010). Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families. Journal of Marriage and Family 72, 726-742.

Angel, R., & Worobey, J. L. (1988). Single motherhood and children’s health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 38–52.

Aro, H., & Palosaari, U. (1992). Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: A follow-up study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 421–429.

Aseltine, R. H., Jr., & Kessler, R. C. (1993). Marital disruption and depression in a community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34, 237-251.

Atkins, David, personal communication, May 21, 2008; this statistic is based on an unpublished analysis of General Social Survey data, 1991–2002.

Barber, B., & Eccles, J. (1992). Long-term influence of divorce and single parenting on adolescent family- and work-related values, behaviors, and aspirations. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 108–126.

Bennun, I. (1997). Relationship interventions with one partner. In W. K. Halford & H. J. Markman (Eds.), Clinical handbook of marriage and couples interventions (pp. 451–470). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Bernhard, W. (2004). A clinical study of the psychological, sexual and social readjustments of twenty women over the age of forty following termination of a long-term marriage. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 3144.

Bianchi, S. (1999). The gender gap in the economic well being of nonresident fathers and custodial mothers. Demography, 36, 195–203

Blanchard, V. L., Hawkins, A. J., Baldwin, S. A., & Fawcett, E. B. (2009). Investigating the effects of marriage and relationship education on couples’ communication skills: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 203–214

Booth, A., & Amato, P. (1991). Divorce and psychological stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 396-407.

Bray, J., & Jouriles, E. (1995). Treatment of marital conflict and prevention of divorce. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 461–473.

Brinig, M., & Nock, S.L. (2000). “These boots are made for walking”: Why most divorce filers are women.  American Law and Economics Review, 2, 126-169.

Brown, S. L., & Lin, I. (2012). The gray divorce revolution: Rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010. The Journals Of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences And Social Sciences, 67B(6), 731-741.

Brown, S. L., & Shinohara, S. K. (2013). Dating relationships in older adulthood: A national portrait. Journal Of Marriage And Family, 75(5), 1194-1202.

Cabrera, N., Shannon, J. D., Vogel, C., Tamis-LeMonda, C., Ryan, R. M., Brooks-Gunn, J., Raikes, H., Cohen, R. (2004). Low-income fathers’ involvement in their toddlers’ lives: Biological fathers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study. Fathering, 2, 5-30.

Calahan, D., Cisin, J. H., & Crossley, H. M. (1969). American drinking practices. New Haven, CT: College and University Press.

Carpenter, G. L., & Stacks, A. M. (2009). Developmental effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in early childhood: A review of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(8), 831-839.

Cordova, J. V., Scott, R. L., Dorian, M., Mirgain, S., Yaeger, D., & Groot, A. (2005). The Marriage Checkup: An indicated prevention intervention for treatment-avoidant couples at risk for marital deterioration. Behavior Therapy, 36, 301–309.

Cowan, P. A., Cowan, C. P., Pruett, M., & Pruett, K. (in press). Supporting father involvement in low-income families: Interventions for fathers and couples. Journal of Marriage and Family.

Cummings, E. M., Faircloth, W. B., Mitchell, P. M., Cummings, J. S., & Schermerhorn, A. C. (2008). Evaluating a brief prevention program for improving marital conflict in community families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 193–202.

Danis, F., & Lockhart, L. (2010). Domestic Violence: Intersectionality and Culturally Competent Practice. New York: Columbia University Press.

Davis, E. C., & Friel, L. V. (2001). Adolescent sexuality: Disentangling the effects of family structure and family context. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 669–681.

Dawson, D. (1991). Family structure and children’s health and well-being: Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Child Health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 573–584.

DiFonzo, J. H. (2014). From the rule of one to shared parenting: Custody presumptions in law and policy. Family Court Review, 52, 213-239.

Doherty, W. J. (1999). How therapy can be hazardous to your marital health. Retrieved from

Doherty, W. J. (2002). Bad couples therapy: How to avoid it. Retrieved from

Doyle, A. B., & Markiewicz, D. (2005). Parenting, marital conflict and adjustment from early- to mid-adolescence: Mediated by adolescent attachment style? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 97–110.

Dush, C. M. K., Cohan, C. L., & Amato, P. R. (2003). The relationship between cohabitation and marital quality and stability: Change across cohorts? Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 539–549.

Emery, R. E. (2004). The truth about children and divorce: Dealing with the emotions so you and your children can thrive. New York: Viking. (pp. 135-161).

Emery, R. E. (1994). Renegotiating family relationships: Divorce, child custody, and mediation. New York: Guilford.

Emery, R. E., & Sbarra, D. A. (2002). Addressing separation and divorce during and after couple therapy. In A. S. Gurman & N. S. Jacobson (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy, 3rd ed. (pp. 508–530). New York: Guilford.

Freigelman, W., Gormand, B. S., & Varacalli, J. A. (1992). Americans who give up religion. Sociology and Social Research, 76, 138-143.

Fine, M. A., & Harvey, J. H. (2006). Handbook of divorce and relationship dissolution. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  (pp. 248-258).

Furstenberg, F. F., & Kiernan, K. E. (2001). Delayed parental divorce: How much do children benefit? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 452.

Gierveld, J., & Peeters, A. (2003). The interweaving of repartnered older adults’ lives with their children and siblings. Ageing & Society, 23(2), 187-205.

Godbout, N., Dutton, D. G., Lussier, Y., & Sabourin, S. (2009). Early exposure to violence, domestic violence, attachment representations, and marital adjustment. Personal Relationships, 16(3), 365-384.

Goddard, W. H. (2010). The marriage garden: Cultivating your relationship so it grows and flourishes. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Grall, T. S. (2001). Custodial mothers and fathers and their child support: 2001 (Current Population Reports, Series P60-225). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Grall, T. S. (2003) Custodial mothers and fathers and their child support: 2003 (Current Population Reports, Series P60-230). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Greenwood, J. (2012). Parent–child relationships in the context of a mid- to late-life parental divorce. Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage, 53(1), 1-17.

Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., & Thomson, E. (1998). Windows on divorce: Before and after. Social Science Research, 27, 329–349. 

Harold, G. T., & Conger, R. D. (1997). Marital conflict and adolescent distress: The role of adolescent awareness. Child Development, 68, 333–356.

Hawkins, A. J., Blanchard, V. L., Baldwin, S. A., & Fawcett, E. B. (2008). Does marriage and relationship education work? A meta-analytic study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 723–734.

Healey, J. (2014). Domestic and Family Violence. Thirroul, N.S.W: Spinney Press.

Heidemann, B., Suhomlinova, O., & O’Rand, A. M. (1998). Economic independence, economic status, and empty nest in midlife marital disruption. Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 60(1), 219-231.

Hetherington, E. M., & Kelly, J. (2002). For better or for worse: Divorce reconsidered. New York: W. W. Norton.

Institute for American Values. (2005). Why marriage matters: Twenty-six conclusions from the social sciences. New York: Author.

Institute for Marriage and Public Policy. (2005). Can married parents prevent crime? Recent research on family structure and delinquency 2000–2005. Washington DC: Institute for Marriage and Public Policy.

Jones, J. M. (2008, March 25). Most Americans not willing to forgive unfaithful spouse. Gallup Poll. Retrieved from

Jose, A., O’Leary, D., & Moyer, A. (2010). Does premarital cohabitation predict subsequent marital stability and marital quality? A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 105–116.

Kaczynski, K. J., Lindahl, K. M., & Malik, N. M. (2006). Marital conflict, maternal and paternal parenting, and child adjustment: A test of mediation and moderation. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 199–208.

Kamiya, Y., Doyle, M., Henretta, J. C., & Timonen, V. (2013). Depressive symptoms among older adults: The impact of early and later life circumstances and marital status. Aging & Mental Health, 17(3), 349-357.

Kanoy, K., Ulku-Steiner, B., Cox, M., & Burchinal, M. (2003). Marital relationship and individual psychological characteristics that predict physical punishment of children. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 20–28.

Katz, L. & Gottman, J. (1997). Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 157–171.

Kennedy, S., & Ruggles, S. (2014). Breaking Up Is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980–2010. Demography, 51(2), 587-598.

Kitson, G. C. (1992). Portrait of divorce: Adjustment to marital breakdown. New York: Guildford.

Kitson, G. C., & Morgan, L. A. (1990). The multiple consequences of divorce: A decade review. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 913-924.

Lawton, L E., & Bures, R. (2001). Parental divorce and “switching” religious identity.  Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 99-111.

Lillard, L. A., & Waite, L. J. (1995). ‘Til death do us part: Marital disruption and mortality. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 1131-1156.

Livingston, P. H. (1985). Union and disunion. Studies in Spirituality, 6, 241-253.

Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D., & Giordano, P. C. (2001). Preadolescent parenting strategies and teens’ dating and sexual initiation: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 322–335.

Madden-Derdich, D. A., & Arditti, J. A. (1999). The ties that bind: Attachment between former spouses. Family Relations, 48, 244-249.

Mahoney, A., & Tarakeshwar, N. (2005). Religion’s hold in marriage and parenting in daily life and during family crisis. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.) Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 177-195). New York: Guildford.

Marquardt, E. (2005). Between two worlds: The inner lives of children of divorce. New York: Crown.

McDaniel, A., & Coleman, M. (2003). Women’s Experiences of Midlife Divorce Following Long-Term Marriage. Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage, 38(3-4), 103-128.

McManus, P. A., & DiPrete, T. A. (2001). Losers and winners: The financial consequences of separation and divorce for men. American Sociological Review, 66, 246–268.

Nock, S. L. (2005). Marriage as a public issue. Future of Children, 15(2), 13–32.

Pett, M. A., Lang, N. E., & Gander, A. (1992). Late-life divorce: Its impact on family rituals. Journal Of Family Issues, 13(4), 526-552.

Roberts, Y. H., Campbell, C. A., Ferguson, M., & Crusto, C. A. (2013). The role of parenting stress in young children’s mental health functioning after exposure to family violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(5), 605-612.

Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon and R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3, Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. New York: Wiley.

Sayer, L. C. ( 2006). Economic aspects of divorce and relationship dissolution. In M. A. Fine & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of divorce and relationship dissolution (pp. 385–406). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sbarra, D. A., & Emery, R. E. (2005). Coparenting conflict, nonacceptance, and depression among divorced adults: Results from a 12-year follow up study of child custody mediation using multiple imputation. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 63-75.

Scafidi, B. (2008). The taxpayer costs of divorce and unwed childbearing: First-ever estimates for the nation and all fifty states. New York: Institute for American Values.

Schramm, D. G., Harris, S. M., Whiting, J. B., Hawkins, A. J., Brown, M., & Porter, R. (2013). Economic costs and policy implications associated with divorce: Texas as a case study. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 54, 1–24.

Schramm, D. G., Marshall, J. P., Harris, V. W., & George, A. (2003). Marriage in Utah: 2003 baseline statewide survey on marriage and divorce. Salt Lake City: Utah Department of Workforce Services (see pp. 19–20).

Shulman, S., Scharf, M., & Lumer, D. (2001). Parental divorce and young adult children’s romantic relationships: Resolution of the divorce experience. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 473–478.

Smock, P. J., Manning, W. D., & Gupta, S. (1999). The effect of marriage and divorce on women’s economic well-being. American Sociological Review, 64, 794–812.

Snyder, D. K., Baucom, D. H., & Gordon, K. C. (2007). Getting past the affair: A program to help you cope, heal, and move on—together or apart. New York: Guilford.

Stewart, S. D. (2003). Nonresident parenting and adolescent adjustment: The quality of nonresident father-child interaction. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 217-244.

Stocker, C. M., Richmond, M. K., Low, S. M., Alexander, E. K., & Elias, N. M. (2003). Marital conflict and children’s adjustment: Parental hostility and children’s interpretations as mediators. Social Development, 12, 149–161.

Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (2006). Hostility and withdrawal in marital conflict: Effects on parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 227–238.

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Waite, L., Browning, D., Doherty, W., Gallagher, M., Luo, Y., & Stanley, S. (2002). Does divorce make people happy? Findings from a study of unhappy marriages. New York: Institute for American Values.

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Wallerstein, J. S., Lewis, J. M., & Blakeslee, S. (2000). The unexpected legacy of divorce: A 25 year landmark study. New York: Hyperion.

Ward, D., & McCollum, E. (2005). Treatment effectiveness and its correlates in a marriage and family therapy training clinic. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(3), 207–223.

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Woodward, L., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2001). Risk factors and life processes associated with teenage pregnancy: Results of a prospective study from birth to 20 years. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 1170–1184.

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Zarling, A. L., Taber-Thomas, S., Murray, A., Knuston, J. F., Lawrence, E., Valles, N., Bank, L. (2013). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms in young children exposed to intimate partner violence: Examining intervening processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(6), 945-955.

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